Atherectomy devices are devices with different designs and indications to cut, scrape, grind, and vaporize plaque. Atherectomy is arterial surgery to remove atherosclerotic plaque from an artery. Atherosclerotic plaques are located in coronary or peripheral arteries and have different properties depending on plaque texture. This surgery is done to widen the arteries to allow blood flow to the heart muscle.
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There are several types of atherectomy techniques used to remove plaque buildup from arteries. The most common types of atherectomy are:
- Directional atherectomy: This technique uses a catheter with a rotating blade to cut and remove the plaque from the artery.
- Laser atherectomy: This technique uses laser energy to vaporize and remove the plaque buildup.
- Orbital atherectomy: This technique uses a diamond-coated burr that rotates eccentrically within the artery to sand and remove the plaque.
- Rotational atherectomy: This technique uses a high-speed rotating burr to grind and remove the plaque from the artery.
- Excisional atherectomy: This technique uses a cutting device to remove the plaque in pieces.
- Ultrasonic atherectomy: This technique uses high-frequency sound waves to break up and remove the plaque from the artery.
Each type of atherectomy technique has its own unique advantages and disadvantages, and the choice of technique depends on the location and severity of the plaque buildup, as well as the patient’s overall health and medical history.